RC - Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self-directed, critical readers.
RC.A - establish purposes for reading selected texts based upon own or others’ desired outcome to enhance comprehension;
RC.B - ask literal, interpretive, evaluative, and universal questions of text;
RC.C - monitor and adjust comprehension (e.g., using background knowledge; creating sensory images; rereading a portion aloud; generating questions);
RC.D - make inferences about text and use textual evidence to support understanding;
RC.E - summarize, paraphrase, and synthesize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order within a text and across texts; and
RC.F - make connections (e.g., thematic links, author analysis) between and across multiple texts of various genres, and provide textual evidence.
1 - Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to adjust fluency when reading aloud grade-level text based on the reading purpose and the nature of the text.
2 - Students understand new vocabulary and use it when reading and writing.
2.A - determine the meaning of grade-level academic English words derived from Latin, Greek, or other linguistic roots and affixes;
2.B - use context (e.g., cause and effect or compare and contrast organizational text structures) to determine or clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or multiple meaning words;
2.C - complete analogies that describe part to whole or whole to part (e.g., ink:pen as page: ____ or pen:ink as book: _____);
2.D - explain the meaning of foreign words and phrases commonly used in written English (e.g., RSVP, que sera sera); and
2.E - use a dictionary, a glossary, or a thesaurus (printed or electronic) to determine the meanings, syllabication, pronunciations, alternate word choices, and parts of speech of words.
3 - Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about theme and genre in different cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding.
3.A - infer the implicit theme of a work of fiction, distinguishing theme from the topic;
3.B - analyze the function of stylistic elements (e.g., magic helper, rule of three) in traditional and classical literature from various cultures; and
3.C - compare and contrast the historical and cultural settings of two literary works.
4 - Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of poetry and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how figurative language (e.g., personification, metaphors, similes, hyperbole) contributes to the meaning of a poem.
5 - Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of drama and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain the similarities and differences in the setting, characters, and plot of a play and those in a film based upon the same story line.
6 - Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the structure and elements of fiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.
6.A - summarize the elements of plot development (e.g., rising action, turning point, climax, falling action, denouement) in various works of fiction;
6.B - recognize dialect and conversational voice and explain how authors use dialect to convey character; and
6.C - describe different forms of point-of-view, including first- and third-person.
7 - Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about the varied structural patterns and features of literary nonfiction and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to identify the literary language and devices used in memoirs and personal narratives and compare their characteristics with those of an autobiography.
8 - Students understand, make inferences and draw conclusions about how an author's sensory language creates imagery in literary text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding. Students are expected to explain how authors create meaning through stylistic elements and figurative language emphasizing the use of personification, hyperbole, and refrains.
9 - Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about the author's purpose in cultural, historical, and contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. Students are expected to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors writing on the same topic.
10 - Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about expository text and provide evidence from text to support their understanding.
10.A - summarize the main ideas and supporting details in text, demonstrating an understanding that a summary does not include opinions;
10.B - explain whether facts included in an argument are used for or against an issue;
10.C - explain how different organizational patterns (e.g., proposition-and-support, problem-and-solution) develop the main idea and the author's viewpoint; and
10.D - synthesize and make logical connections between ideas within a text and across two or three texts representing similar or different genres.
11 - Students analyze, make inferences and draw conclusions about persuasive text and provide evidence from text to support their analysis.
11.A - compare and contrast the structure and viewpoints of two different authors writing for the same purpose, noting the stated claim and supporting evidence; and
11.B - identify simply faulty reasoning used in persuasive texts.
12 - Students understand how to glean and use information in procedural texts and documents.
12.A - follow multi-tasked instructions to complete a task, solve a problem, or perform procedures; and
12.B - interpret factual, quantitative, or technical information presented in maps, charts, illustrations, graphs, timelines, tables, and diagrams.
13 - Students use comprehension skills to analyze how words, images, graphics, and sounds work together in various forms to impact meaning. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts.
13.A - explain messages conveyed in various forms of media;
13.B - recognize how various techniques influence viewers' emotions;
13.C - critique persuasive techniques (e.g., testimonials, bandwagon appeal) used in media messages; and
13.D - analyze various digital media venues for levels of formality and informality.
14 - Students use elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing) to compose text.
14.A - plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for conveying the intended meaning to an audience, determining appropriate topics through a range of strategies (e.g., discussion, background reading, personal interests, interviews), and developing a thesis or controlling idea;
14.B - develop drafts by choosing an appropriate organizational strategy (e.g., sequence of events, cause-effect, compare-contrast) and building on ideas to create a focused, organized, and coherent piece of writing;
14.C - revise drafts to clarify meaning, enhance style, include simple and compound sentences, and improve transitions by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging sentences or larger units of text after rethinking how well questions of purpose, audience, and genre have been addressed;
14.D - edit drafts for grammar, mechanics, and spelling; and
14.E - revise final draft in response to feedback from peers and teacher and publish written work for appropriate audiences.
15 - Students write literary texts to express their ideas and feelings about real or imagined people, events, and ideas.
15.A - write imaginative stories that include:
15.A.i - a clearly defined focus, plot, and point of view;
15.A.ii - a specific, believable setting created through the use of sensory details; and
15.A.iii - dialogue that develops the story; and
15.B - write poems using:
15.B.i - poetic techniques (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia);
15.B.ii - figurative language (e.g., similes, metaphors); and
15.B.iii - graphic elements (e.g., capital letters, line length).
16 - Students write about their own experiences. Students are expected to write a personal narrative that has a clearly defined focus and communicates the importance of or reasons for actions and/or consequences.
17 - Students write expository and procedural or work-related texts to communicate ideas and information to specific audiences for specific purposes.
17.A - create multi-paragraph essays to convey information about a topic that:
17.A.i - present effective introductions and concluding paragraphs;
17.A.ii - guide and inform the reader's understanding of key ideas and evidence;
17.A.iii - include specific facts, details, and examples in an appropriately organized structure; and
17.A.iv - use a variety of sentence structures and transitions to link paragraphs;
17.B - write informal letters that convey ideas, include important information, demonstrate a sense of closure, and use appropriate conventions (e.g., date, salutation, closing);
17.C - write responses to literary or expository texts and provide evidence from the text to demonstrate understanding; and
17.D - produce a multimedia presentation involving text and graphics using available technology.
18 - Students write persuasive texts to influence the attitudes or actions of a specific audience on specific issues. Students are expected to write persuasive essays for appropriate audiences that establish a position and include sound reasoning, detailed and relevant evidence, and consideration of alternatives.
19 - Students understand the function of and use the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity.
19.A - use and understand the function of the following parts of speech in the context of reading, writing, and speaking:
19.A.i - verbs (irregular verbs and active and passive voice);
19.A.ii - non-count nouns (e.g., rice, paper);
19.A.iii - predicate adjectives (She is intelligent.) and their comparative and superlative forms (e.g., many, more, most);
19.A.iv - conjunctive adverbs (e.g., consequently, furthermore, indeed);
19.A.v - prepositions and prepositional phrases to convey location, time, direction, or to provide details;
19.A.vi - indefinite pronouns (e.g., all, both, nothing, anything);
19.A.vii - subordinating conjunctions (e.g., while, because, although, if); and
19.A.viii - transitional words and phrases that demonstrate an understanding of the function of the transition related to the organization of the writing (e.g., on the contrary, in addition to);
19.B - differentiate between the active and passive voice and know how to use them both; and
19.C - use complete simple and compound sentences with correct subject-verb agreement.
20 - Students write legibly and use appropriate capitalization and punctuation conventions in their compositions.
20.A - use capitalization for:
20.A.i - abbreviations;
20.A.ii - initials and acronyms; and
20.A.iii - organizations;
20.B - recognize and use punctuation marks including:
20.B.i - commas in compound sentences;
20.B.ii - proper punctuation and spacing for quotations; and
20.B.iii - parentheses, brackets, and ellipses (to indicate omissions and interruptions or incomplete statements); and
20.C - use proper mechanics including italics and underlining for titles of books.
21 - Students spell correctly.
21.A - differentiate between commonly confused terms (e.g., its, it's; affect, effect);
21.B - use spelling patterns and rules and print and electronic resources to determine and check correct spellings; and
21.C - know how to use the spell-check function in word processing while understanding its limitations.
22 - Students ask open-ended research questions and develop a plan for answering them.
22.A - brainstorm, consult with others, decide upon a topic, and formulate open-ended questions to address the major research topic; and
22.B - generate a research plan for gathering relevant information about the major research question.
23 - Students determine, locate, and explore the full range of relevant sources addressing a research question and systematically record the information they gather.
23.A - follow the research plan to collect data from a range of print and electronic resources (e.g., reference texts, periodicals, web pages, online sources) and data from experts;
23.B - differentiate between primary and secondary sources;
23.C - record data, utilizing available technology (e.g., word processors) in order to see the relationships between ideas, and convert graphic/visual data (e.g., charts, diagrams, timelines) into written notes;
23.D - identify the source of notes (e.g., author, title, page number) and record bibliographic information concerning those sources according to a standard format; and
23.E - differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism and identify the importance of citing valid and reliable sources.
24 - Students clarify research questions and evaluate and synthesize collected information.
24.A - refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions; and
24.B - evaluate the relevance and reliability of sources for the research.
25 - Students organize and present their ideas and information according to the purpose of the research and their audience. Students are expected to synthesize the research into a written or an oral presentation that:
25.A - compiles important information from multiple sources;
25.B - develops a topic sentence, summarizes findings, and uses evidence to support conclusions;
25.C - presents the findings in a consistent format; and
25.D - uses quotations to support ideas and an appropriate form of documentation to acknowledge sources (e.g., bibliography, works cited).
26 - Students will use comprehension skills to listen attentively to others in formal and informal settings. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity.
26.A - listen to and interpret a speaker's messages (both verbal and nonverbal) and ask questions to clarify the speaker's purpose and perspective;
26.B - follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps; and
26.C - paraphrase the major ideas and supporting evidence in formal and informal presentations.
27 - Students speak clearly and to the point, using the conventions of language. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to give an organized presentation with a specific point of view, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively.
28 - Students work productively with others in teams. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater complexity. Students are expected to participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members and by identifying points of agreement and disagreement.