6.1 - Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion.
6.1.A - listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;
6.1.B - follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;
6.1.C - give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and
6.1.D - participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.
6.2 - Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively.
6.2.A - use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;
6.2.B - use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words; and
6.2.C - determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as mis/mit, bene, man, vac, scrib/script, and jur/jus.
6.3 - Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.
6.4 - Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.
6.5 - Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts.
6.5.A - establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;
6.5.B - generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;
6.5.C - make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;
6.5.D - create mental images to deepen understanding;
6.5.E - make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;
6.5.F - make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;
6.5.G - evaluate details read to determine key ideas;
6.5.H - synthesize information to create new understanding; and
6.5.I - monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.
6.6 - Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed.
6.6.A - describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;
6.6.B - write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;
6.6.C - use text evidence to support an appropriate response;
6.6.D - paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;
6.6.E - interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;
6.6.F - respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;
6.6.G - discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;
6.6.H - respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and
6.6.I - reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.
6.7 - Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts.
6.7.A - infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;
6.7.B - analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;
6.7.C - analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and nonlinear elements such as flashback; and
6.7.D - analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development.
6.8 - Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts.
6.8.A - demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;
6.8.B - analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;
6.8.C - analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;
6.8.D - analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:
6.8.D.i - the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;
6.8.D.ii - features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information; and
6.8.D.iii - organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage;
6.8.E - analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:
6.8.E.i - identifying the claim;
6.8.E.ii - explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument;
6.8.E.iii - identifying the intended audience or reader; and
6.8.F - analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.
6.9 - Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances.
6.9.A - explain the author's purpose and message within a text;
6.9.B - analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;
6.9.C - analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;
6.9.D - describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;
6.9.E - identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;
6.9.F - analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and
6.9.G - explain the differences between rhetorical devices and logical fallacies.
6.10 - Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions.
6.10.A - plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;
6.10.B - develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:
6.10.B.i - organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and
6.10.B.ii - developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;
6.10.C - revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;
6.10.D - edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:
6.10.D.i - complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;
6.10.D.ii - consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;
6.10.D.iii - conjunctive adverbs;
6.10.D.iv - prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;
6.10.D.v - pronouns, including relative;
6.10.D.vi - subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;
6.10.D.vii - capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;
6.10.D.viii - punctuation marks, including commas in complex sentences, transitions, and introductory elements; and
6.10.D.ix - correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and
6.10.E - publish written work for appropriate audiences.
6.11 - Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful.
6.11.A - compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;
6.11.B - compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;
6.11.C - compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and
6.11.D - compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.
6.12 - Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes.
6.12.A - generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;
6.12.B - develop and revise a plan;
6.12.C - refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;
6.12.D - identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;
6.12.E - differentiate between primary and secondary sources;
6.12.F - synthesize information from a variety of sources;
6.12.G - differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;
6.12.H - examine sources for:
6.12.H.i - reliability, credibility, and bias; and
6.12.H.ii - faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;
6.12.I - display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and
6.12.J - use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.